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What does estrogen receptor alpha do?

What does estrogen receptor alpha do?

Abstract. The estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates a large number of genes in many different target tissues and is important in the development and progression of breast cancer. ERα-mediated transcription is a complex process regulated at many different levels.

What is the estrogen receptor gene?

Oestrogen receptor (ER) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression events that culminate in cell division, an important property that contributes to its critical role in mammary gland development.

Where are estrogen receptors in the body?

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are members of the superfamily class of nuclear receptors located in either the cell cytoplasm or nucleus and which function as transcription factors (Lovejoy, 2005).

Where is estrogen receptor alpha located?

The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is found predominately in the nucleus, both in hormone stimulated and untreated cells. Intracellular distribution of the ERα changes in the presence of agonists but the impact of different antiestrogens on the fate of ERα is a matter of debate.

What is the difference between ER alpha and ER beta?

In particular, ERα is highly expressed in endothelial cells and plays a role in mediating the effects of estrogens in the vascular endothelium, whereas ERβ stimulates the production of nitric oxide. Therefore, the activation of both receptors has a beneficial hypotensive effect caused by vascular wall dilation [31–32].

How does ERalpha affect the inflammatory response to Toll-like receptor ligands?

The inflammatory response to toll-like receptor ligands is significantly impacted by the presence of ERalpha despite the absence of estradiol, and may partially explain the protective effect of ERalpha deficiency in lupus-prone animals

What is the difference between ERalpha and erbeta?

First, ERalpha and ERbeta have different biological functions, as indicated by their specific expression patterns and the distinct phenotypes observed in ERalpha and ERbeta knockout (alphaERKO and betaERKO) mice.

How do ERalpha and erbeta modulate gene expression?

Studies with osteoblast-derived cell lines indicate that these two receptors modulate the transcription of distinctly different sets of genes, with only a modest amount of overlap [144]. The effects of ERalpha on gene expression tend to be amplified in ERbeta-knockout mice, suggesting that ERbeta down-regulates some responses to ERalpha [145].

Where are ERalpha and erbeta receptors found in bone?

Both ERalpha and ERbeta are expressed in the main cell types present in human bone: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes [141–143]. Studies with osteoblast-derived cell lines indicate that these two receptors modulate the transcription of distinctly different sets of genes, with only a modest amount of overlap [144].

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