What are the complications of a pulmonary embolism?

What are the complications of a pulmonary embolism?

Complications of pulmonary embolism include the following:

  • Sudden cardiac death.
  • Obstructive shock.
  • Pulseless electrical activity.
  • Atrial or ventricular arrhythmias.
  • Secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension.
  • Cor pulmonale.
  • Severe hypoxemia.
  • Right-to-left intracardiac shunt.

What is the most common ECG abnormality in pulmonary embolism?

The most common ECG finding in the setting of a pulmonary embolism is sinus tachycardia. However, the “S1Q3T3” pattern of acute cor pulmonale is classic; this is termed the McGinn-White Sign. A large S wave in lead I, a Q wave in lead III and an inverted T wave in lead III together indicate acute right heart strain.

What causes bilateral pulmonary Thromboemboli?

Pulmonary embolism occurs when a clump of material, most often a blood clot, gets wedged into an artery in your lungs. These blood clots most commonly come from the deep veins of your legs, a condition known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In many cases, multiple clots are involved in pulmonary embolism.

What is the pathophysiology of a pulmonary embolism?

PE occurs when deep venous thrombi detach and embolize to the pulmonary circulation. Pulmonary vascular occlusion occurs and impairs gas exchange and circulation. In the lungs, the lower lobes are more frequently affected than the upper, with bilateral lung involvement being common.

What is pulmonary hypotension?

Pulmonary hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that affects the arteries in the lungs and the right side of the heart. In one form of pulmonary hypertension, called pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), blood vessels in the lungs are narrowed, blocked or destroyed.

Will PE show up on EKG?

Everyone knows that the EKG is a poorly sensitive test and cannot be used to reliably exclude PE on its own, especially given that somewhere around 20% of patients found to have a PE will have a normal EKG.

What conditions cause elevated D dimer?

If your results reveal that you have higher-than-normal levels of D-dimer in your blood, it may mean that you have a blood clotting condition….Other conditions and situations that can cause higher-than-normal levels of D-dimer include:

  • Pregnancy.
  • Heart disease.
  • Recent surgery.
  • Trauma.
  • Infection.

Why does a pulmonary embolism cause hypoxia to develop?

A low pressure of oxygen in venous blood also may contribute to arterial hypoxemia when PE causes right ventricular failure. Low cardiac output leads to increased extraction of oxygen in the tissues, thereby decreasing the partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood below normal levels.

Why does a PE cause hypotension?

The systemic hypotensive reaction to pulmonary embolism is only in part due to a decreased cardiac output. The more severe responses are best explained on the basis of a vasomotor reflex producing a decrease in systemic arterial resistance.