How does epigenetic reprogramming work?

How does epigenetic reprogramming work?

Epigenetic reprogramming is the process by which an organism’s genotype interacts with the environment to produce its phenotype and provides a framework for explaining individual variations and the uniqueness of cells, tissues, or organs despite identical genetic information.

What are myc target genes?

Among the targets of Myc, 107 were nuclear encoded genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Genes with important roles in mitochondrial replication and biogenesis, such as POLG, POLG2, and NRF1 were identified as direct targets of Myc, confirming a direct role for Myc in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis.

Why does epigenetic reprogramming occur?

Genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming occurs at stages when developmental potency of cells changes. At fertilization, the paternal genome exchanges protamines for histones, undergoes DNA demethylation, and acquires histone modifications, whereas the maternal genome appears epigenetically more static.

What is reprogramming of the genome?

The study of mitotically and/or meiotically heritable changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in DNA sequences. Genomic reprogramming. The process that alters functions and properties of a cell through reversible modifications of DNA or associated proteins, without affecting the DNA sequence itself …

How does epigenetics regulate gene expression?

Epigenetic mechanisms constrain expression by adapting regions of the genome to maintain either gene silencing or gene activity. This is achieved through direct chemical modification of the DNA region itself and by modification of proteins that are closely associated with the locus.

How many genes does myc regulate?

Myc-Regulated Transcriptional Network. The functional categories of these 668 genes revealed that a wide variety of different cellular processes like transcriptional regulation, biosynthesis, cell cycle control and signaling transduction are directly regulated by Myc (see supporting information).

What genes does myc transcribe?

The MYC proto-oncogene encodes a prototypical oncogenic transcription factor that plays a central role in the genesis of many different human cancers [1, 2]. MYC belongs to the family of myc genes that also includes Bmyc, MYCL and MYCN.

What is partial reprogramming?

Therefore, partial reprogramming is a method of using OSKM factors (or alternative reprogramming factors, in the wider context) to revert aged cells to a younger state without completing the reprogramming cycle, thus retaining their cellular identity.

When does epigenetic reprogramming occur?

The most critical periods at which epigenetic reprogramming occurs are those during gametogenesis and the preimplantation embryonic stage (6). Reprogramming during gametogenesis is essential for the imprinting mechanism that regulates the differential expression of paternally and maternally derived genes.

How does reprogramming alter genes?

Reprogramming factors completely remodel the epigenetic code of differentiated cells to one resembling ESCs (Hanna et al., 2010 for review). Pluripotency genes are activated and differentiation genes are silenced.