How does bilirubin act as an antioxidant?
Thus, when bilirubin acts as an antioxidant, it is itself oxidized to biliverdin which is rapidly reduced by BVR to bilirubin. Depletion of BVR by RNA interference markedly diminishes the cytoprotective effects of exogenous bilirubin and leads to increased cellular levels of oxygen free radicals and cell death (13).
What is the role of bilirubin?
Bilirubin is carried in the plasma to the liver, where it is conjugated to form bilirubin diglucuronide and excreted in the bile. Bilirubin level thus serves as a measure of liver and bile tract function.
How is bilirubin degraded?
Heme is a ring of four pyrroles joined by carbon bridges and a central iron atom. Bilirubin is generated by a two-stage sequential catalytic degradation reaction that primarily takes place in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system, notably the spleen.
What are the major antioxidant mechanisms in the body?
The antioxidant enzymes in all body cells consist of three major classes of antioxidant enzymes which are the catalases, superoxide dismutases (SOD), and glutathione peroxidases (GPX), all of these, play crucial roles in maintaining homeostasis into cells.
Is bilirubin an antioxidant?
Bilirubin is a pigment and natural antioxidant. Often, an excess of bilirubin is a sure indicator of disease, but emerging research suggests that high levels of this compound may actually help to sustain cardiovascular health.
How is heme converted to bilirubin?
The metabolic system which converts heme to biliru- bin consists of microsomal heme oxygenase, which cat- alyzes the oxidation of heme at the a-methene bridge to form biliverdin, and biliverdin reductase, a soluble enzyme responsible for the reduction of biliverdin to bilirubin .
How do antioxidants work mechanism?
An antioxidant is a substance that at low concentrations delays or prevents oxidation of a substrate. Antioxidant compounds act through several chemical mechanisms: hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer (SET), and the ability to chelate transition metals.
Which below Drug Act is antioxidant?
Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation, a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals and chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) may act to inhibit these reactions.
What is the best partner for glutathione?
A Glutathione efficacy in skin lightening works only if it is taken with Vitamin C at least equal or twice its dosage. Standard dosage is 20-40 mg/kg of body weight for 3-6 months once or twice in a day and best if taken at night 2-3 hours after last meal for better absorption.