Which drug causes hypercalciuria?
Loop Diuretics Furthermore, the hypercalciuric effect of furosemide in infants is enhanced by a reduced glomerular filtration rate and immature hepatic function, which contribute to significantly prolonging the half-life of this drug. The calculi isolated from these patients are composed exclusively of calcium oxalate.
Why are thiazides used for calcium stones?
When used appropriately in renal leak hypercalciuria, thiazides prevent secondary hyperparathyroidism and normalize vitamin D3 synthesis, calcium absorption, and urinary calcium excretion. Stone formation rates drop more than 90% in patients with renal calcium leak who are placed on long-term thiazide therapy.
How does thiazide diuretics affect calcium?
By increasing calcium reabsorption from the luminal membrane into the interstitium in exchange for sodium, thiazides reduce urine calcium levels and increase blood calcium. However, if indicated, this effect of thiazide diuretics makes thiazides useful for nephrolithiasis and osteoporosis treatment.
Why are thiazide diuretics used in nephrolithiasis?
Thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of recurrent kidney calculi in patients with kidney calculi or hypercalciuria. However, whether thiazide diuretics can definitely prevent recurrent kidney calculi remains unclear.
Do thiazide diuretics cause hyperkalemia?
Hyperkalemia is a leading complication of the potassium-sparing agents, especially in patients with an underlying tendency for hyperkalemia. Thiazide diuretics, in particular, have been linked to glucose intolerance, which may be an effect of hypokalemia rather than the diuretic itself.
When are thiazide diuretics used?
Thiazide diuretics are mainly used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). They are occasionally also used for heart failure. When used to treat heart failure they are often combined with another type of medicine called a loop diuretic.
How quickly does thiazide work?
Hydrochlorothiazide inhibits sodium chloride transport in the distal convoluted tubule. More sodium is then excreted in the kidney with accompanying fluid. Pharmacological effects begin in about 2 hours after an oral dose, peak in 4 hours, and lasts for about 6 to 12 hours.
When should you take thiazide diuretics?
Most thiazide diuretics are taken once a day in the morning. Any reduction in blood pressure is maintained throughout the 24 hours by this once-a-day dose. However, the effect of passing extra urine wears off within 12 hours. So, you will not have to get up in the night to make extra trips to the toilet.
Why do thiazide diuretics cause hyperlipidemia?
Hyperlipidemia is prevalent in hypertension, but the cause of this association is unknown. Treatment of hypertension with thiazide diuretics accentuates the hyperlipidemia, perhaps by causing potassium or sodium depletion.