Recommendations What causes xanthine stones?

What causes xanthine stones?

What causes xanthine stones?

Xanthine stones are absolutely rare. They are caused by an inborn defect of xanthine oxidase. Xanthine cannot be oxidized to uric acid, so that the excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine increases. Xanthine is only poorly soluble, which results in xanthine stone formation.

Does allopurinol cause bladder stones?

Although the formation of urinary xanthine stones has been anticipated as a possible complication of allopurinol therapy, to date this occurrence has not been documented in the clinical use . . .

Is xanthine excreted in the urine?

As a consequence, abnormal quantities of xanthine are excreted in urine as a major end-product of purine metabolism. Because xanthine is the least soluble of the purines naturally excreted in urine, xanthinuria may be associated with formation of uroliths.

Are xanthine stones radiolucent?

Xanthine stones are radiolucent and are not routinely revealed on KUB testing. Further imaging of the urinary tract is necessary to determine the presence of a xanthine stone.

How do you dissolve xanthine?

Xanthine is soluble in sodium hydroxide solutions and in acidic solutions. It is soluble in 1 M NaOH (50 mg/mL), with sonication for less than 5 minutes, yielding a clear solution.

What is the difference between colchicine and allopurinol?

Zyloprim (allopurinol) works well to prevent gout attacks and is cheaper than some alternatives, but it takes a few weeks to start working. Prevents and treats gout. Colcrys (colchicine) is a second-choice treatment for gout attacks. Be careful how much you use since it can cause problems with your blood.

What is xanthine used for?

The major use of xanthine derivatives are for relief of bronchospasm caused by asthma or chronic obstructive lung disease. The most widely used xanthine is theophylline.

What is xanthine bronchodilator?

Xanthine derivatives are a group of alkaloids that work as mild stimulants and bronchodilators. Xanthine derivatives ease symptoms of bronchospasm and make breathing easier by relaxing the smooth muscles of the respiratory tract and reducing the airway’s hypersensitive response to stimuli.

What is uric acid stones?

A uric acid stone is a type of kidney stone, which is a hard object that is made from chemicals in the urine. After formation, the stone may stay in the kidney or travel down the urinary tract into the ureter.

What happens if you take too much xanthine?

The excess xanthine can cause damage to the kidneys and other tissues. Xanthinuria leads to urolithiasis (kidney stones formation), hematuria (blood in urine), renal colic and urinary tract infections (UTIs), while some patients are asymptomatic and others suffer from kidney failure.

What is xanthine?

Xanthine is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some kidney stones. Xanthine is formed following enzymatic degradation of adenine and guanine.

What is the difference between xanthine and hypoxanthine kidney stones?

Xanthine stones occur more often than hypoxanthine because of the lower solubility of xanthine in urine. Xanthinuria should be suspected if a patient has significant hypouricemia and hypouricosuria in the presence of radiolucent stones.

What are the symptoms of xanthine crystals in urine?

These stones can impair kidney function and ultimately cause kidney failure. Related signs and symptoms can include abdominal pain, recurrent urinary tract infections, and blood in the urine (hematuria). Less commonly, xanthine crystals build up in the muscles, causing pain and cramping.