How does pneumolysin affect the body?
The presence of pneumolysin increases the rate of influx of neutrophils. This may be caused by pneumolysin increasing the rate of local tissue damage, and thus increasing the rate of cytokine production.
Is pneumolysin a hemolysin?
Pneumolysin was found to be produced by 112 of 113 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and to be an intracellular hemolysin.
How is Streptococcus pneumoniae treated?
Treatment. Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are treated with antibiotics. There is an increasing problem of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria developing drug resistance due to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics.
Is pneumolysin an endotoxin?
A major exotoxin of Streptococcus pneumoniae is pneumolysin (24). Pneumolysin is a multifunctional bacterial cytoplasmic protein of 53 kDa with a wide range of cytotoxic and proinflammatory properties, and it is an important determinant of pneumococcal virulence (28).
How is Pneumolysin secreted?
Pneumolysin, a toxin produced by S. pneumoniae, is known to be released during enzyme-mediated autolysis4, competence-induced lysis5 and antibiotic-mediated lysis of pneumococci6.
What does Pneumolysin target?
Pneumolysin in Host Tissue Injury. The pneumococcus is a highly successful pathogen that infects the middle ear, lungs, blood, heart, and brain. In the host, PLY works on multiple levels to facilitate invasion by contributing to direct cell damage and escape from the host’s immune system.
Is Pneumolysin secreted?
Pneumolysin toxin is mostly found in the cytoplasm of S. pneumoniae and it cannot be actively secreted as it lacks a secretory signal30. Therefore, the biological relevance of pneumolysin is specific to lysed bacterial cells.
How can Streptococcus pneumoniae be prevented?
Getting vaccinated is the best way to protect against pneumococcal disease. Pneumococcal vaccines are routinely recommended in the United States. Some groups may need multiple doses or booster shots.
How can pneumonia be prevented?
You can help prevent pneumonia by doing the following:
- Get the flu vaccine each year. People can develop bacterial pneumonia after a case of the flu.
- Get the pneumococcal vaccine.
- Practice good hygiene.
- Don’t smoke.
- Practice a healthy lifestyle.
- Avoid sick people.
What is the function of Pneumolysin?
Pneumolysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) toxin that forms lytic pores in host membranes and mediates pneumococcal disease pathogenesis by modulating inflammatory responses.
Is Pneumolysin an antigen?
Although native pneumolysin is a protective immunogen in mice, it is not suitable as a human vaccine antigen, because of its toxicity.